AI, startup hacks, and engineering miracles from your friends at Faraday

Rewinding time with rr & Rust to debug a terrible error message

Yesterday morning, I was confronted with a truly terrible error message from a Rust program I was developing:

$ cage up --init
Error: error getting the project's state from Docker
ExpectedError("Object", "null")

The first part of that error message comes from cage (our open source tool for developing Docker apps with lots of microservices), which tries to be as informative as it can. The second part of the error comes from rustc-serialize, and it means I'm about to have a very bad day.

Let's track this down, fix the bug, and improve the error message as much as possible. Along the way, we'll see how to run the debugger backwards (and why you'd want to), and how to enforce informative error messages in Rust.

Preliminary investigation

Here, cage is talking directly to the Docker daemon, and it's trying to get information about the containers railshello_db_1 and railshello_web_1. You can do this manually using docker:

$ docker inspect railshello_db_1 railshello_web_1
        "Id": "ab759d6b03d1c035ad4d6ef3b7b72427b6d2911b87be7734a8fee5c6f912fa54",
        "Created": "2016-10-25T11:57:05.845095715Z",
        "Path": "/",
        "Args": [
        "State": {
            "Status": "running",
            "Running": true,
            "Paused": false,
            "Restarting": false,
            "OOMKilled": false,

This continues for a total of 428 lines of JSON, most of it poorly documented. We're using rustc-serialize to automatically deserialize this JSON into Rust data structures which look like:

#[derive(Debug, Clone, RustcEncodable, RustcDecodable)]
pub struct ContainerInfo {
    pub AppArmorProfile: String,
    pub Args: Vec<String>,
    pub Config: Config,
    pub Created: String,
    pub Driver: String,
    // ...
    pub Mounts: Vec<Mount>,
    pub Name: String,
    pub NetworkSettings: NetworkSettings,
    pub Path: String,
    pub ProcessLabel: String,
    pub ResolvConfPath: String,
    pub RestartCount: u64,
    pub State: State,

We have over 160 lines of this code, and ExpectedError("Object", "null") means that we have a null somewhere, but the corresponding field is demanding a full-fledged JSON Object. In other words, I wrote something like:

    pub Config: Config,

…that says we want an actual Config, when I should have wrapped that type in Option to specify that it's allowed to be null:

    pub Config: Option<Config>,

It's days like this that make me curious about how much startup capital is needed to produce artisanal Vermont cheese. I've met some former bankers who are really into that, and they seem happy.

Try #1: Transforming JSON with jq

Whenever something goes wrong with JSON, I immediately reach for jq. This allows me to drill down into JSON data structures and transform them using the command line:

$ docker inspect railshello_db_1 | jq '.[] | .Config'
  "Hostname": "ab759d6b03d1",
  "Domainname": "",
  "User": "",
  "AttachStdin": false,
  "AttachStdout": false,
  "AttachStderr": false,

After about 10 minutes with jq and grep, I can't find a suspicious null anywhere. Obviously, the bug is in right in front of me, but I'm not seeing it. This usually means that either I'm looking in the wrong place, or one of my assumptions is wrong. I need better data about what's going on, or else I'll waste hours speculating.

Try #2: Time-travelling debugging!

When logic and reason fail, it's time to reach for the debugger. We have a little test program that we can use, containing the following function:

fn find_all_exported_ports() -> Result<()> {
    let docker = try!(Docker::connect_with_defaults());
    let containers = try!(docker.get_containers(false));
    for container in &containers {
        let info = try!(docker.get_container_info(&container));
        let ports: Vec<String> = info.NetworkSettings.Ports.keys()
        println!("{}: {}", &info.Name, ports.join(", "));

Unfortunately, do you remember all those structs with declarations like this?

#[derive(Debug, Clone, RustcEncodable, RustcDecodable)]

Those declarations mean that we're going to be dealing with generated code that calls more generated code. And because Rust doesn't have exceptions, we can't tell it to "break on exception" and allow us to poke around.

This seems like a great opportunity to try out rr, which allows us to run programs backwards! Let's build our test program and record an execution trace using rr record:

$ cargo build --example findports
$ rr record target/debug/examples/findports

Now let's load that execution trace into the debugger using rr replay:

$ rr replay
GNU gdb (Ubuntu 7.11.1-0ubuntu1~16.04) 7.11.1
0x00007fd531b82cc0 in _start () from /lib64/

From here, we can replay the crash using c (for "continue"):

(rr) c
Error: ExpectedError("Object", "null")

Program received signal SIGKILL, Killed.
0x0000000070000002 in ?? ()

So now that we have a crash, let's work backwards to where it all went wrong. Ideally, we want the name of JSON field which contained the unexpected null. This will be named something like "Config".

So now we need to dig through rustc-serialize/src/ and find out how it handles field names. After some poking around, this looks promising:

    fn read_struct_field<T, F>(&mut self,
                               name: &str,
                               _idx: usize,
                               f: F)
                               -> DecodeResult<T> where
        F: FnOnce(&mut Decoder) -> DecodeResult<T>,

So what we want to do is look at the last couple of read_struct_field calls before the program failed, find the value of name they received, and check that against our Rust data structures.

Setting break points on Rust functions is tricky, because they have huge compound names. Fortunately, we can use rbreak to set a breakpoint using a regular expression as follows:

(rr) rbreak rustc_serialize::json::.*read_struct_field.*

This produces three pages of output informing me it set 18 breakpoints on different versions of this function. This happens because the Rust compiler creates multiple copies of "generic" functions for performance.

And now for the fun part. Backwards execution! We use rc ("reverse continue") to run the program backwards until we hit a breakpoint:

(rr) rc

Breakpoint 17, rustc_serialize::json::{{impl}}::read_struct_field<std::collections::hash::map::HashMap<collections::string::String, std::collections::hash::map::HashMap<collections::string::String, collections::string::String, std::collections::hash::map::RandomState>, std::collections::hash::map::RandomState>,fn(&mut rustc_serialize::json::Decoder) -> core::result::Result<std::collections::hash::map::HashMap<collections::string::String, std::collections::hash::map::HashMap<collections::string::String, collections::string::String, std::collections::hash::map::RandomState>, std::collections::hash::map::RandomState>, rustc_serialize::json::DecoderError>> (self=0x7fff57e51128, name=...,
    _idx=14, f=0x0)
    at /home/emk/.cargo/registry/src/
2227	    fn read_struct_field<T, F>(&mut self,

Now let's print out the name argument to read_struct_field:

(rr) set print pretty on
(rr) p name
$2 = {
  data_ptr = 0x5597aeec409f <str17130> "VolumesWorkingDirMountSourceDestinationModeRWPropagationBridgeEndpointIDGateway",
  length = 7

This is a raw Rust &str slice, pointing to 7 bytes in a longer string literal. This tells us we're looking at a field named Volumes. Some quick digging around reveals such a field in struct Config:

#[derive(Debug, Clone, RustcEncodable, RustcDecodable)]
pub struct Config {
    pub AttachStderr: bool,
    pub AttachStdin: bool,
    pub AttachStdout: bool,
    // ...
    pub Volumes: HashMap<String, UnspecifiedObject>,
    pub WorkingDir: String,

This looks like it might be our culprit! We can change this to:

    pub Volumes: Option<HashMap<String, UnspecifiedObject>>,

…and re-run our program:

$ cargo run --example findports
   Compiling docker v0.0.41 (file:///home/emk/w/src/cage/rust-docker)
    Finished debug [unoptimized + debuginfo] target(s) in 9.72 secs
     Running `target/debug/examples/findports`
/railshello_web_1: 3000/tcp
/railshello_db_1: 5432/tcp

Yay! It works! But this won't be the last time we find this problem, so let's try to improve this error message a bit.

Chaining errors in Rust

We need to look at the code calling rustc_serialize::json::decode and see if we can provide a little bit more context for this error. The relevant code is in a fork of rust-docker and it uses the excellent error-chain library to handle errors:

error_chain! {
    // Provide wrappers for other libraries' errors.
    foreign_links {
        env::VarError, EnvVar;
        hyper::Error, Hyper;
        io::Error, Io;
        rustc_serialize::json::DecoderError, Json;

    // Define our own errors.
    errors {
        CouldNotConnect(host: String) {
            description("could not connect to Docker")
            display("could not connected to Docker at '{}'", &host)

        // ...

error_chain! is a giant macro that generates a bunch of error-handling code at compile time. The foreign_links section, in particular, allows us to automatically convert other libraries' errors into our own docker::Error type.

But rustc_serialize has horrible error messages, so we don't want to be allowed to automatically convert its errors into our own. We want Rust to force us to add useful information. So let's remove this line from the foreign_links block:

rustc_serialize::json::DecoderError, Json;

…and add a new custom error type to the errors block:

ParseError(wanted: &'static str, input: String) {
    description("error parsing JSON from Docker")
    display("error parsing JSON for {} from Docker", wanted)

Here, &'static str means wanted is a literal string slice, and String means that input is a regular owned string. We don't display input because it's huge, but we include it in the error so that our caller can log it if desired.

When re-run cargo test, we get the following errors:

error[E0277]: the trait bound `errors::Error: std::convert::From<rustc_serialize::json::DecoderError>` is not satisfied
   --> src/
346 |         let info = try!(json::decode::<ContainerInfo>(&body));
    |                    ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ trait `errors::Error: std::convert::From<rustc_serialize::json::DecoderError>` not satisfied

This is telling us the we can longer automatically convert rustc_serialize::json::DecoderError into our own Error type. This is exactly what we wanted! Now we need to change:

let info = try!(json::decode::<ContainerInfo>(&body));


let info = try!(json::decode::<ContainerInfo>(&body));
    .chain_err(|| ErrorKind::ParseError("ContainerInfo", body));

This will wrap the json::DecoderError in our new ParseError type, giving us a slighly less awful error message:

Error: error parsing JSON for ContainerInfo from Docker
ExpectedError("Object", "null")

I should probably include a link to this blog post in that error message for the next person to hit one of these bugs! Unfortunately, we can't do much better without patching rustc-serialize.

If you maintain Rust code, please try to provide helpful, high-quality error messages with plenty of context. There are some great tools for doing this, but not all libraries use them.

Saved by the compiler: Parallelizing a loop with Rust and rayon

This post is part of our rust series.

The Rust compiler just saved me from a nasty threading bug. I was working on cage (our open source development tool for Docker apps with lots of microservices), and I decided to parallelize the routine that transformed docker-compose.yml files. This was mostly an excuse to check out the awesome rayon library, but it turned into a great example of what real-world Rust development is like.

The original routine looked something like this:

/// Process our pods, flattening and transforming them using our
/// plugins, and output them to the specified directory.
fn output_helper(&self, op: Operation, export_dir: &Path) -> Result<()> {
    // Output each pod.
    for pod in &self.pods {
        // Don't export pods which aren't enabled.
        if !pod.enabled_in(&self.current_target) {

        // Figure out where to put our pod.
        // ...

        // Combine overrides, make it standalone, tweak as needed, and
        // output.
        let mut file = try!(pod.merged_file(&self.current_target));
        let ctx = plugins::Context::new(self, pod);
        try!(self.plugins().transform(op, &ctx, &mut file));

To convert this to a parallel loop, I started by changing:

for pod in &self.pods {


self.pods.par_iter().map(|pod| -> Result<()> {

Here, Result<()> means "this closure might return an error, or it might return an empty tuple, basically void." (For more information on Rust error handling, check out the Rust book.) But it couldn't be that easy, could it?

Nope. The Rust compiler showed me the following error message. It's long, but I'll translate:

error[E0277]: the trait bound `plugins::PluginTransform + 'static: std::marker::Sync` is not satisfied
   --> src/
397 |         self.pods.par_iter().map(|pod| -> Result<()> {
    |                              ^^^ trait `plugins::PluginTransform + 'static: std::marker::Sync` not satisfied
    = note: `plugins::PluginTransform + 'static` cannot be shared between threads safely
    = note: required because it appears within the type `Box<plugins::PluginTransform + 'static>`
    = note: required because of the requirements on the impl of `std::marker::Sync` for `std::ptr::Unique<Box<plugins::PluginTransform + 'static>>`
    = note: required because it appears within the type `alloc::raw_vec::RawVec<Box<plugins::PluginTransform + 'static>>`
    = note: required because it appears within the type `std::vec::Vec<Box<plugins::PluginTransform + 'static>>`
    = note: required because it appears within the type `plugins::Manager`
    = note: required because it appears within the type `std::option::Option<plugins::Manager>`
    = note: required because it appears within the type `project::Project`
    = note: required because it appears within the type `&project::Project`
    = note: required because it appears within the type `&&project::Project`
    = note: required because it appears within the type `[closure@src/ 424:10 op:&plugins::Operation, self:&&project::Project, export_dir:&&std::path::Path]`

The key bit to take away here is that "Sync is not satisfied" for the trait plugins::PluginTransform. In Rust, Sync is a special trait that tells the compiler that it's safe to share an object between two threads. That whole long list of "notes" afterwards looks intimidating, but it's really just telling me that my PluginTransform objects live inside my plugins::Manager type, which in turn lives inside my Project. The Rust compiler is verbose, but it tries to be helpful.

A bit of investigation reveals that PluginTransform inherits from the Plugin trait:

pub trait PluginTransform: Plugin {

So we can fix this problem by changing the declaration of Plugin from:

pub trait Plugin {


pub trait Plugin: Sync {

This says, "All types implementing Plugin must also allow me to access them from multiple threads." With that fixed, I re-run cargo test and get a similar message:

error[E0277]: the trait bound `plugins::transform::vault::GenerateToken + 'static: std::marker::Sync` is not satisfied
   --> src/plugins/transform/
230 | impl plugins::Plugin for Plugin {
    |      ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ trait `plugins::transform::vault::GenerateToken + 'static: std::marker::Sync` not satisfied

This time, I change:

trait GenerateToken: Debug {


trait GenerateToken: Debug + Sync {

This says, "All types which implement GenerateToken must also implement Debug (so I can print them), as well as Sync (so I can share them). We're making progress!

Re-running cargo test, however, reveals the actual bug, and it would have been a nightmare to debug:

error[E0277]: the trait bound `std::rc::Rc<std::cell::RefCell<std::vec::Vec<(std::string::String, std::vec::Vec<std::string::String>, vault::client::VaultDuration)>>>: std::marker::Sync` is not satisfied
   --> src/plugins/transform/
124 | impl GenerateToken for MockVault {
    |      ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ trait `std::rc::Rc<std::cell::RefCell<std::vec::Vec<(std::string::String, std::vec::Vec<std::string::String>, vault::client::VaultDuration)>>>: std::marker::Sync` not satisfied

Uh-oh. In our test harness, we have a type MockVault, which contains an Rc<RefCell<_>>:

type MockVaultCalls = Rc<RefCell<Vec<(String, Vec<String>, VaultDuration)>>>;

/// A fake interface to vault for testing purposes.
struct MockVault {
    /// The tokens we were asked to generate.  We store these in a RefCell
    /// so that we can have "interior" mutability, because we don't want
    /// `generate_token` to be `&mut self` in the general case.
    calls: MockVaultCalls,

We use the MockVault to simulate a connection to Hashicorp's Vault, a secure central storage for passwords and other secrets, which issues time-limited credentials. And when we test our Vault code, we use the calls member here to record all the requests that we would have made to Vault.

The type Rc<RefCell<_>> is a hack. The GenerateToken API assumes that our token-generator is a read-only object. This is good, because we want to access it from multiple threads! But in the test code, we need to create some "interior" mutable state. Basically, we ask Rust to replace compile-time borrow checks with run-time borrow checks. (For more details, see the Rust book.) But Rc<RefCell<_>> is a lightweight mechanism designed for single-threaded code.

The fix is to replace Rc<RefCell<_>> with Arc<RwLock<_>>, which is fully thread-safe:

type MockVaultCalls = Arc<RwLock<Vec<(String, Vec<String>, VaultDuration)>>>;

Once we make this change, Rust reminds us to change all the code that accesses calls, too:

error: no method named `borrow_mut` found for type `std::sync::Arc<std::sync::RwLock<std::vec::Vec<(std::string::String, std::vec::Vec<std::string::String>, vault::client::VaultDuration)>>>` in the current scope
   --> src/plugins/transform/
132 |         self.calls.borrow_mut().push((display_name.to_owned(), policies, ttl));
    |                    ^^^^^^^^^^
error: no method named `borrow` found for type `std::sync::Arc<std::sync::RwLock<std::vec::Vec<(std::string::String, std::vec::Vec<std::string::String>, vault::client::VaultDuration)>>>` in the current scope
   --> src/plugins/transform/
368 |     let calls = calls.borrow();
    |                       ^^^^^^

Phew. If we hadn't caught that Rc<RefCell<_>>, our test suites might have randomly segfaulted a couple of times a week, and it would have taken us weeks to track it down. I don't even think our current test suites could trigger this bug, but I bet a future version would have been able to, leaving a nasty surprise for us someday. The Rust compiler dug down through layers of data structures and found the one bit that wasn't thread safe.

Wrapping it up

Rust also complains about that fact that we're calling continue from inside a closure:

error[E0267]: `continue` inside of a closure
   --> src/
402 |                 continue;
    |                 ^^^^^^^^ cannot break inside of a closure

We can fix this by moving this code:

// Don't export pods which aren't enabled.
if !pod.enabled_in(&self.current_target) {

...into a filter call on our parallel iterator:

    // Don't export pods which aren't enabled.
    .filter(|pod| pod.enabled_in(&self.current_target))
    // Process each pod in parallel.
    .map(|pod| -> Result<()> {

The final problem is that we now have a parallel computation that returns a bunch of Result<()> objects, and we need to boil them down to a single Result<()> like we had before. If we have a bunch of error messages, I'm happy to just pick one. No need to overwhelm the user.

I spoke to Josh Stone, and he helped me come up with the following:

    .map(|pod| -> Result<()> {
        // ...
    // If more than one parallel branch fails, just return one error.
    .reduce_with(|result1, result2| result1.and(result2))

This says, "Given any two results named result1 and result2, take result1 if it's an error, otherwise take result2." It's basically a short-circuit && operator, but for Result values instead of booleans. I've filed an issue suggesting that rayon should provide those last two lines as a built-in function.

And yes, that's a genuine parallel map-reduce in Rust!

So here's our final loop, using work-stealing parallelism:

fn output_helper(&self, op: Operation, export_dir: &Path) -> Result<()> {
    // Output each pod.  This isn't especially slow (except maybe the
    // Vault plugin), but parallelizing things is easy.

        // Don't export pods which aren't enabled.
        .filter(|pod| pod.enabled_in(&self.current_target))

        // Process each pod in parallel.
        .map(|pod| -> Result<()> {
            // Figure out where to put our pod.
            // ...

            // Combine overrides, make it standalone, tweak as needed, and
            // output.
            let mut file = try!(pod.merged_file(&self.current_target));
            let ctx = plugins::Context::new(self, pod);
            try!(self.plugins().transform(op, &ctx, &mut file));

        // If more than one parallel branch fails, just return one error.
        .reduce_with(|result1, result2| result1.and(result2))

This was pretty painless! I have a lot more things to parallelize, of course. But this is what day-to-day Rust development is like: I have to do a bit of extra work to satisfy the compiler (which mostly becomes a reflex). But in turn, the compiler ferrets out all kinds of subtle concurrency errors and generally watches my back. It's an interesting tradeoff, and overall I like it.

Announcing Cage: Develop and deploy complex Docker applications


This post is part of our devops series.

At Faraday, we rely heavily on microservices to analyze data, generate maps and make predictions. All our microservices run inside Docker containers, which makes it easy to run our code either locally or in the cloud.

But if you've ever worked on a large project with lots of services, you're aware that local development can be difficult:

  • You need some way to run a complex set of microservices locally on your laptop.
  • You need to be able access the source code for multiple projects easily, edit it locally, and see the changes immediately.
  • You need to remember how to run tests for services written in multiple languages by multiple teams.

Originally, we used docker-compose to work on our services locally. It offered some great features, but it didn't quite do enough:

  • We very quickly wound up needing multiple docker-compose.yml files. For example, you're encouraged to use them to define "task" containers. They're also helpful if you need to selectively restart individual portions of your application or if you use multiple load balancers.
  • docker-compose.yml files often contain a fair bit of duplication. There are ways to reduce this using extends: and env_file:, but it still requires manual maintenance.
  • docker-compose provides limited support for working with multiple source repositories.

But what if there were a tool that made complex microservice projects as simple and easy as a Rails web application? We decided to build some tools and see how simple we could make it.

Introducing Cage

Cage is an open source tool that wraps around docker-compose, and it tries to make local development as easy as possible.

We can get started by using cage to generate a new project:

cage new myproj
cd myproj

Next, we can start up our database server and create a new database. This part should be familiar to docker-compose users:

cage up db
cage run rake db:create
cage run rake db:migrate

Once the database is set up, we can start the rest of the application:

cage up

This should make a web application available at http://localhost:3000/.

Diving deeper

If we open up pods/frontend.yml, we'll see a standard docker-compose.yml file:

version: "2"
    image: "faraday/rails_hello"
    build: ""
    - "3000:3000"
      io.fdy.cage.srcdir: "/usr/src/app" "bash"
      io.fdy.cage.test: "bundle exec rake"

We see that frontend.yml defines a single web service using the faraday/rails_hello image, with source code available from (There are also some labels that we'll explain later.)

Let's get this source code and make a change! First, we need to "mount" the source code into our service, and restart the app:

cage source mount rails_hello
cage up

This will clone a copy of the rails_hello source code in src/rails_hello, and mount it into our web service in the directory specified by io.fdy.cage.srcdir above. So we can just go ahead and create an HTML file at src/rails_hello/public/index.html:

  <head><title>Sample page</title></head>
  <body><h1>Sample page</h1></body>

If we go back to http://localhost:3000/ and reload, we should see our new page!

Testing and shell access

One challenge on large microservice projects is remembering how to test other people's code! We specified io.fdy.cage.test above, which specifies how to run tests for our web service. We can invoke this as:

cage test web

If we have other services written in other languages, we could also test them using cage test $SERVICE_NAME.

Similarly, if we want to get command-line access to our web service, we can run:

cage shell web

How we built cage

cage is a single binary with no dependencies. It's written in Rust and the Linux version links against musl-libc, so you should be able to install it on any modern Linux distribution using cp.

cage relies heavily on the compose_yml library, which provides a typesafe API for working with the complex data structures in a docker-compose.yml file.

Internally, cage is structured a bit like a multi-pass compiler. In this case, the intermediate language would be docker-compose.yml files, and various transformation plugins each transform the files in some way.

Rust has been a great language for this project:

  • Rust allows us to build fast, standalone binaries.
  • Refactoring Rust code is a joy, because the compiler can catch so much.
  • The cargo build tool and the the crates ecosystem is great.
  • Rust's type system allows us keep careful track of exactly what's in a docker-compose.yml file, which fields are optional, and which fields require shell variable interpolation. (It's far more complex than it looks.) Without a strong type system, it would be very easy to overlook an important case when writing a transformation plugin.

Getting started

Cage is still extremely new, and few people outside of Faraday have ever used it! So we encourage you to contact us and to ask us questions.

We're interested in hearing about what works, what doesn't, and what's too confusing. We're also interested in ideas for new features to simplify your development workflow.

Good, strict default warnings for Rust code with Clippy

Do you maintain a project written in Rust? Would you like to enable really aggressive warnings to make code review easier? Here's what it looks like:

We can set this up using a combination of Rust's built-in warnings and the excellent Clippy package. For best results with Clippy, it's easiest to install the nightly release of Rust:

curl -sSf | sh
rustup update nightly

You can then update your Cargo.toml file as follows:

unstable = ["clippy"]

clippy = { version = "0.0.*", optional = true }

Near the top of your project's src/ file, add this enormous list of warnings:

// Enable clippy if our Cargo.toml file asked us to do so.
#![cfg_attr(feature="clippy", feature(plugin))]
#![cfg_attr(feature="clippy", plugin(clippy))]

// Enable as many useful Rust and Clippy warnings as we can stand.  We'd
// also enable `trivial_casts`, but we're waiting for
#![cfg_attr(feature="clippy", warn(cast_possible_truncation))]
#![cfg_attr(feature="clippy", warn(cast_possible_wrap))]
#![cfg_attr(feature="clippy", warn(cast_precision_loss))]
#![cfg_attr(feature="clippy", warn(cast_sign_loss))]
#![cfg_attr(feature="clippy", warn(missing_docs_in_private_items))]
#![cfg_attr(feature="clippy", warn(mut_mut))]
// Disallow `println!`. Use `debug!` for debug output
// (which is provided by the `log` crate).
#![cfg_attr(feature="clippy", warn(print_stdout))]
// This allows us to use `unwrap` on `Option` values (because doing makes
// working with Regex matches much nicer) and when compiling in test mode
// (because using it in tests is idiomatic).
#![cfg_attr(all(not(test), feature="clippy"), warn(result_unwrap_used))]
#![cfg_attr(feature="clippy", warn(unseparated_literal_suffix))]
#![cfg_attr(feature="clippy", warn(wrong_pub_self_convention))]

For documentation about individual warnings, run rustc -W help and look at the Clippy lint list. This will show you all available warnings, and explain what each one does.

If you also want to turn warnings into compilation errors, you can add:

// Fail hard on warnings.  This will be automatically disabled when we're
// used as a dependency by other crates, thanks to Cargo magic.

To see your new warnings, run:

rustup run nightly cargo build --features unstable

This will compile your code using the nightly build of Rust, activating the unstable feature that we defined in Cargo.toml, which will in turn activate the clippy feature. Surprisingly, even with all these warnings activated, I see very few false positives in practice.

Because Clippy uses nightly Rust, you may occasionally get compilation errors. If this happens, get the latest nightly build and the latest version of Clippy:

rustup update nightly
cargo update

If this still doesn't work, just leave off --features unstable and try again tomorrow.